What rights are protected under ICRA?
No Indian tribe in exercising powers of self-government shall infringe on the following rights—
free exercise of religion and freedom of speech
freedom from unreasonable search and seizures
freedom from prosecution more than once for the same offense
not testify against yourself in a criminal case
not have private property taken for public use without just compensation
a speedy and public trial, to be told the charges, confront witnesses, subpoena witnesses and, at your own expense, have a lawyer’s help in all criminal cases
freedom from excessive bail, excessive fines, cruel and unusual punishment and, for conviction of any one offense, freedom from punishment greater than imprisonment for one year and a fine of $5,000 or both
equal protection of the laws and freedom from deprivation of liberty or property without due process of law
freedom from any bill of attainder or ex post facto law
a trial by jury of at least six persons, if accused of an offense punishable by imprisonment
Can a Tribal Court criminally sentence an individual to longer than 1 year?
Yes. The ICRA was amended to add additional protections for anyone facing longer than 1 year in jail. 25 USC 1302.
Can I file a case in federal court if I think my rights were violated by a Tribe?
Yes. However, generally, federal courts will only hear Habeas cases. 25 USC 1303. You can seek a “writ of habeas corpus” challenging your detention when an order of a tribe has you held in jail or otherwise detained. You must first exhaust all remedies available through tribal court, including tribal court appeals, unless it would be futile to do so OR irreparable injury would result from the delay.
Can I file a case in Tribal Court?
Yes. However the procedures in each tribal jurisdiction are different and the tribe might assert sovereign immunity from suit. This means you cannot sue the government without its consent.